a shift from small-scale workshop or household manufacture, to the large-scale, mechanized mass-production of goods, where new technologies and methods of organizing work meant that commodities could be produced much more quickly and cheaply than with earlier methods of handicraft.

'the general process by which economies and societies in which agriculture and the production of handicrafts predominate become transformed into economics and societies where manufacturing and related extractive industries are central. This process occurred first in the UK during the Industrial Revolution and was soon repeated in other Western European societies. Profound changes in the social organization of production and distribution are involved, especially a rapid increase in the division of labour, both between individuals and occupational groups and also between industrialized and nonindustrialized nations, changes which lead to a transformation of the techniques and the social organization of agriculture'

Stobart, J. (2009). Industrialization. In D. Gregory, The dictionary of human geography. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers. Retrieved from

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